For Hispanics, cultural heft and new tensions
Now the largest minority, Latinos are still searching for a political voice.
Long before Hispanics officially became the nation's largest minority - a milestone announced by the Census Bureau this week - salsa edged out ketchup as the top US condiment and ATMs in rural Vermont asked customers if they wanted to withdraw cash in Spanish or English.Skip to next paragraph
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Bilingual education, and opposition to it, was sweeping the nation's schoolrooms. Ricky Martin and Gloria Estefan crossed over into mainstream music superstardom.
But this week is a fresh reminder of the transforming impact on American life of this fast-growing community - even as it remains so diverse that it defies easy racial or ethnic generalizations. In the economy alone, the influence of Hispanic Americans is staggering - and controversial. "The economy of the Sun Belt and California would collapse without Hispanics. They are doing the work of the entire culture," says California historian Kevin Starr.
While their rise has helped fueled America's economic growth for decades, it has also sparked tension, such as concern over whether illegal immigrants and others are depriving other Americans of economic opportunity.
While black and Hispanic groups share an interest in improving education, for example, some African-American activists predict that the higher presence for Hispanics could increase tensions among the two groups.
"Blacks have been denied opportunity in years past just because they were black. Now we are faced with the same type of dilemma just because we don't speak Spanish," says Nathaniel Wilcox, executive director of People United to Lead the Struggle for Equality (PULSE), a grassroots group in Miami. "All of these things create tension in our community."
Still, from harvesting the nation's food supply to manning hotels, restaurants, and construction sites, Hispanics have been a key to the long economic surge of the 1980s and '90s.
"It's not about a population rate, about who's the largest minority group. It's about a population that continues to have influence in cultural, social, and economic aspects of American life." Dr. Louis Olivas, a business expert at Arizona State University and founder of the National Hispanic Corporate Council Institute.
Take Jennifer Lopez, for instance. She influences music and dress in America, cutting across ethnic boundaries. Mexican restaurants are on every corner.
The Latino influence continues to permeate American culture in more subtle ways as well. Avon recently came out with a new line of cosmetics for Hispanic women. Hallmark produces birthday cards in Spanish. Cuban black beans and gourmet burritos are as familiar on store shelves as Le Sueur peas.
Still, in Hollywood, breaking the white, male dominance on the big and small screen is never easy. Miami, for instance, is about 70 percent Hispanic. Consider just the two television shows currently set in Miami, which is almost 70 percent Hispanic. "Good Morning Miami" recently lost its only Hispanic cast member and the only Latino on "CSI: Miami" doesn't have a Hispanic last name.
For all its cultural and economic impact, the large and diverse Hispanic community is just beginning to find a comparable political voice.