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As homes burn, questions of culpability

More homeowners are moving deeper into Western forests, stretching firefighting forces.

By Todd WilkinsonSpecial to The Christian Science Monitor / August 14, 2000


Kevin Ryan sits in his office, fidgeting with a photograph.

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The image shows three homes in Los Alamos, N.M. Two are little more than cinders, charred by fires that burned out of control in May. The third, which was saved, is getting a new roof - of highly combustible wooden shingles.

"Apparently this homeowner did not learn the lesson that his neighbors now know," says Mr. Ryan, a Forest Service ecologist.

As US firefighting efforts come under unprecedented scrutiny, with hundreds of homes from California to South Dakota destroyed by blazes, the photo frames a central question this fire season: Who bears the greatest responsibility for protecting houses built in fire-prone forests?

Fire officials like Ryan see more and more people moving deeper into the forest - sometimes putting up tinder-box houses - and wonder what they can do to head off destruction.

Yet others note that strict building codes are already in place in some states, and claim that the government is not doing enough to keep the flames at bay.

Already this season, officials say, a disproportionate number of firefighters and resources have been diverted to save homes on the fringes of the wildland frontier. It's a trend that's raising awareness about the challenges presented by Americans' outward push into places where, until recently, humans have never lived in such large numbers.

"The context in which wildfires are portrayed almost always revolves around tragedy and it's couched in terms of the evil pryo-demon coming out from the forest and gobbling up homes," Ryan says. "The truth is we know how to build homes that won't burn but we choose not to do it."

This season's toll

So far, more than 410,000 acres have burned in the northern Rockies with new fires igniting from dry lightning strikes every day. The most acreage has burned in the Great Basin region, where almost 700,000 acres of grass-scrub brush and forest have been charred in parts of Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. More are burning in Nevada.

By the time the Western fire season finally ends with snowfall in October and November, federal experts say the cost of battling the blazes could easily surpass $1 billion.

"If the present direction continues to play out, as many believe it will, this season could exceed anything we've seen in living memory," says Orville Daniels, a retired federal forester who served as supervisor of the Lolo National Forest in Montana.

"Even with the better equipment we have, the consequences of the current fires would be more far reaching that those in 1910," he says, referring to fires that quadrupled in size in just 36 hours and burned 3 million acres in Idaho and Montana alone.

Across the Bitterroot Valley of Montana, numerous front yards are marked with red streaks of slurry - a special fire retardant dropped by low-flying bombers to thwart the advance of flames.

While the scenes attest to heroic firefighting efforts, they also tell a stark story. The very forest which attracted the homeowners is gone. Only the blackened spires of lodgepole and ponderosa pine remain.