A year later, 'Our Land' struggles
Nunavut, Canada's newest territory, takes up the challenge to rectify economic shortcomings.
The map shows beige earth surrounded by blue water, but the reality of this place, at this time of year, is still all white: snow on the ground, and snow and ice out where, for the brief weeks of summer, Frobisher Bay will be.Skip to next paragraph
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It was just over a year ago that Canada redrew its map for the first time in half a century to carve out a new territory: Nunavut. The territory is three times the size of Texas, and has an estimated population of 30,000 people.
A year after the skies of this frontier capital in the Arctic blazed with celebratory fireworks, the people here still have a sense that, as Peter Irniq, the new territorial commissioner puts it, "Every day we're making history."
"It's been a joy and a challenge," says Premier Paul Okalik.
Iqaluit, capital of the new territory, has something of the look, feel, and pace of the World War II military base it once was. An air of subdued bustle pervades it. Battered taxis and sturdy trucks loop endlessly around on its few miles of paved roads. Everywhere, one hears the whine of snowmobiles, answered by the distant roar of the cargo jets that remind a visitor how much this place depends on air freight. On the ground, the number of freight containers abandoned, or perhaps creatively recycled as low-cost warehouses, is a reminder how the air freight is mostly one-way.
Nunavut, which means "our land" in Inuktitut, has high rates of unemployment, welfare dependency, and alcoholism. Yet it is a gentle, friendly place, where sharing taxis is taken for granted, and where relations between Inuit and non-Inuit seem relaxed and comfortable. All over, one sees people wearing duckbilled caps with the logo of the new Legislative Assembly, as if it were the local team they were cheering on. And most do.
"It would astonish most Nunavummiut to know how much they have already contributed to Canada. Their persistence and determination ... has forced Canadians and their governments to review many assumptions and habits of public policy, and has expanded the national outlook," Peter Jull, a Canadian who is adjunct associate professor at the Centre for Democracy at the University of Queensland in Australia, wrote recently.
He continues: "In the international arena, Nunavummiut and other Inuit from Canada, Greenland, Alaska, and Chukotka have not only brought the problems of the Arctic region and its environment to world attention ... [and] they have also been showing that they have answers."
The record of the new government has been mixed. It finished its first fiscal year, March 31, in the black - largely because it wasn't able to do all the hiring it must.
Meanwhile, basics are in short supply - most notably housing. The healthcare system is strained and day-care funding is so tight that providers marched into the Legislative Assembly in protest the other day - with their small charges in tow.
Still, Nunavut is seen by many as one of the most successful efforts by indigenous people and a Western government to come to terms, however belatedly, and all without a shot being fired. "Everybody is watching" this bold new venture, says Gail Osherenko, a senior fellow at the Arctic Studies Center at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire.
The new territory rests on two pillars: a land-claim settlement with the Inuit as aboriginal inhabitants, and a political agreement for a new territory with a government open to full participation by all. That it was not an ethnic homeland made Nunavut a constitutional construct that even conservatives could like.