Microchip Under His Skin
When Kevin Warwick walks into his office, doors open, lights switch on, and a digitized voice says, "Welcome, Professor Warwick."Skip to next paragraph
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He could have created the same effects by tucking a smart card into the pocket of his tweed jacket. But by opting to implant a silicon chip under his skin last week, Professor Warwick claims to have become the world's first cyborg - "part man, part machine."
His daughter quips that he's crazy, and his wife says that the experiment "turns her stomach," but the soft-spoken chairman of the Cybernetics Department at the University of Reading in England, doesn't sound like a sendup from a sci-fi convention.
"I come from a background of machine intelligence, looking at how intelligent machines are likely to be in the future," says Warwick, whose publications include books such as "Neural Network Engineering and Dynamic Control Systems."
"There is a school of thought that says that the way humans can keep up with machines is to have silicon implants helping our intelligence, but it's been a bit science-fictiony. I thought technically we can go at least part of the way in that direction, so I went and had a go at it. What I can do now is fairly limited, but it shows some of the possibilities," he adds.
The idea of man empowered by digital ability has always raised ethical issues and deeper questions about what it means to be human. Those issues get tougher as the distinction between man and machine blurs.
When humans started interacting with computers in a box in the 1950s, they called them tools. When students at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, started wearing their computers in the 1980s, they called themselves "cyborgs." Warwick's experiment brings the computer literally under the skin.
There are good reasons to do this, Warwick says: For example, such chips could connect up with the human nervous system and help people with disabilities. "Imagine yourself directly connected with a computer, with the memory capacity of that computer at your disposal. Imagine being able to visualize with X-rays, ultraviolet rays, ultrasonic rays, infrared rays - to see in every way that a computer can see: That's where the forefront of technology is," he says, in a phone interview.
But the experiment also raises ethical issues he says he's not prepared to answer as a scientist. For example, a couple e-mailed Warwick the day after his experiment was publicized in Europe to ask if he thought such a chip would be appropriate for tracking their child, who is autistic and often wanders off.
"I haven't replied yet. I dare not reply. I really do not know what to answer. You can say, technically, let's put in a chip and maybe that will limit movement for a child, but the infringement on that child's liberty is enormous, even if you are autistic," he says. "There's a danger that human values and judgments will disappear because we will perceive the world very differently."
Has the experiment changed how he perceives the world or himself? "Just being a human being, you feel physically just what you are.... With this chip, I have a link with a part of me that is now separate. It's not just me being a physical thing as I am, it's something else out there. Some people would feel the same thing in a spiritual sense," he says.
The response to Warwick's experiment has been worldwide, according to the Department of Cybernetics at Reading University, which offers information about this experiment on its Web site (www.cyber.reading.ac.uk). Comments range from frank congratulations to concern over what Warwick calls "the Big Brother issue."
"We've set off a cyborg race," he says.
In fact, that race was well under way before an inch-long glass capsule found a temporary home inside Warwick's arm.
Soft side of cyborg revolution
One of the best views from the front is MIT's Media Laboratory, which has been pioneering new interfaces between humans and computers since 1980. Here, the "smart" beverage machine knows how much milk to put into a hot drink by reading a tag on the bottom of your mug, and the refrigerator has a scanner that tells you when the milk is getting sour.
Call it the soft side of the cyborg revolution, where computers are on you, not in you. Here, things that think help out "like a great, old-fashioned English butler, anticipating your needs in an unobtrusive way," says Alexandra Kahn, a spokesman for the Media Lab. Visiting corporate sponsors in suits wander through resolutely blue-jeaned work groups gleaning ideas for new products.