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Rethinking Medical Aid In Suicide

Oregon is voting - again - on whether doctor-aided death will be a legal choice.

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Those in favor of the new ballot measure have far outspent supporters of Oregon's law in promoting their cause. These include the Roman Catholic Church, the Mormon Church, and the group Right to Life. Reformed and Orthodox Judaism, Islam, and most other Christian denominations oppose suicide and euthanasia as well.

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Philosophy professor Margaret Battin says Christianity's opposition to suicide of any kind grew out of the "promise of a beatific personal afterlife." As far back as St. Augustine in the 4th century, she says, the accepted view has been that the Christian "shouldn't kill himself in order to get to the afterlife."

Still, a few religions - the Unitarian-Universalist Association and the United Church of Christ among them - have concluded that choosing to end one's life with the help of a doctor is morally acceptable.

Vote's outcome uncertain

Despite the infusion of out-of-state money to nullify the Death With Dignity law, Oregonians are exhibiting their typical independence - right up to tomorrow night's ballot deadline. According to statewide polls, more than 60 percent did not want to have to vote on the issue a second time, and they resent lawmakers' bringing it up again.

Oregon is also one of the most "unchurched" states in the nation, meaning fewer people here regularly attend religious services than elsewhere. Radio ads against the repeal are paid for by the "Don't Let 'Em Shove Their Religion Down Your Throat Committee."

Yet given the sensitivity of the subject, no one is confidently predicting an outcome. Nationwide, many Americans may be having second thoughts about physician-assisted suicide as well. Polls by the Gallup organization show the percentage of those supporting the procedure dropped from 75 percent in May 1996, to 57 percent last June.

Earlier this year, the US Supreme Court left it up to states to decide the legality of doctor-aided suicide, but it also ruled that there is no constitutional right to the practice. Chief Justice William Rehnquist warned that, if legalized, "it will prove extremely difficult to police and contain."

President Clinton, too, has expressed concern. "The risks and consequences ... are simply too great," he has said.

Rise of hospice care

Another reason more people may be questioning physician-assisted suicide is the recent increase in hospice care for patients diagnosed as terminally ill.

Such care involves close physical, social, psychological, and spiritual attention, often in conjunction with palliative (pain-reducing) drugs. In many cases, this care is provided in familiar surroundings at home - and at less cost than that of a hospital stay.

"Beyond physical and psychological comfort, spiritual comfort is an important goal of hospice care," states the National Hospice Organization, which represents 2,200 hospice programs around the country. "Patients who opt for euthanasia may miss the opportunity to transcend their suffering and find meaning in their lives for themselves and their survivors."

Supporters of "choice" on the matter agree that hospice care should be more widely available.

Ira Byock, a hospice medical director in Missoula, Mont., speaks for many on both sides of the issue when he says, "Success will not come with making assisted suicide and euthanasia legal, but rather with making them unnecessary."