Wanted in Russia: Judicial Reform
An Independent Judiciary and Jury Trials Are Needed
THE start of Alexander Timofeyev's murder and rape trial generated a fair amount of sensational news-media coverage, with several Moscow newspapers featuring the event on the front page.Skip to next paragraph
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Mr. Timofeyev, dubbed "Jack the Ripper" by the press, is suspected of stalking and raping as many as 18 women, brutally killing some of the victims, during a year-long rampage in the Russian capital. Officially, however, he's on trial for the rape and murder of two women.
Despite the publicity, Judge Alexander Korzhikov's tiny courtroom was virtually empty during the second day of testimony in the case, which began March 4 at Moscow City Court.
Guarded by three armed Interior Ministry troops, the dark and diminutive Timofeyev appeared relaxed as he sat with legs crossed in a locked cage for defendants. Only a few friends and relatives of victims sat on the three benches reserved for spectators.
That the case drew so much press attention, yet was attended by so few people isn't surprising considering that the trial is technically closed to everyone except those directly involved.
"All cases involving sexual offenses are closed," says Judge Korzhikov, defending the concept of closed trials. "Sexual offenses are sexual offenses, and testimony should be allowed to remain the secrets of the victims."
The practice of closed trials is just one aspect of the Russian judicial system that some people are trying to change. Without reforms, they say, Russia will never have an independent judiciary - a vital component in any functioning democracy.
"For more than 73 years we have had no real judicial branch of government," says Boris Zolotyukhin, the chairman of the Russian parliament's Committee on Judicial Reform.
"The courts were just an extension of [Communist] Party power. Anyone who came before the court had little chance of a fair trial," he says.
Mr. Zolotyukhin is leading the charge for judicial reform. With the support of Russian President Boris Yeltsin, as well as the Russian Justice Ministry, Zolotyukhin late last year gained parliamentary approval for his judicial reform blueprint. But turning those ideas into reality hasn't been easy, he says.
Though the parliament has already established a constitutional court, before the courts can be reformed, a new constitution and updated laws still must be worked out. To complicate matters, some powerful government agencies are opposing court reforms, especially the office of the procurator, or prosecutor. Cutting back the procurator's powers, as well as subordinating the office to the courts, is an essential part of the reform plan, Zolotyukhin says.
Prosecutors currently operate independently of the courts and oversee all aspects of pretrial preparation, including issuing arrest and search warrants. They also can control a defense lawyer's ability to gather evidence.
In addition, the procurator has the authority to jail a suspect for an unlimited period without charges being filed. Given those sweeping powers, it's understandable why conviction rates in trials run at about 99 percent.
Reformers want not only to rein in prosecutors, but also to revamp the entire structure of the courts.