CAPE TOWN — The negotiating plan of the African National Congress - known as the Harare Declaration - prescribes a sequence of events leading to negotiations. With minor modifications, the Declaration was adopted unanimously by the UN General Assembly last December as the international agenda for peace in South Africa. Pretoria must unilaterally create the climate for talks by unconditionally releasing political prisoners and detainees, legalizing political organizations, withdrawing troops from the townships, ending the state of emergency, repealing security legislation, and ceasing political trials and executions. (De Klerk has fully met two conditions.)
Once these conditions have been met, the government and the ANC must negotiate a cease-fire.
Negotiations must then be held to agree on a set of constitutional principles set out in the document. There is already a wide degree of convergence on these principles.
The parties must then agree on the mechanism to draw up the new constitution. This could be a major stumbling block, as the ANC insists on a sovereign constituent assembly whose decisions would be binding. Pretoria favors a negotiating forum subject to parliamentary approval.
The parties must then decide what role the international community should play to ensure a successful transition to democracy.
The parties must agree on transitional arrangements to oversee the drawing up and adoption of the new constitution and to ensure a smooth transition to democracy, with free and fair elections.
Upon adoption of the new constitution, there will be a formal cessation of hostilities will take place and international sanctions will be lifted.