After the Cultural Revolution: A New Look in Chinese Cinema. FILM: INTERVIEW
AN important facet of this year's Berlin Film Festival was its emphasis on Chinese cinema, which has been making a strong impression at a growing number of filmfests around the world. A key member of the Chinese contingent at Berlin was Wu Ziniu, an articulate and affable filmmaker whose much-talked-about feature ``Evening Bell'' will have its American premi`ere on March 28 at New York's respected New Directors/New Films festival, sponsored by the Film Society of Lincoln Center and the Museum of Modern Art. Mr. Wu, who graduated from film school in Beijing in 1982, is a leading member of the ``fifth generation'' group of Chinese filmmakers - the first generation to reach cinematic maturity after the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, which caused widespread disruption in Chinese artistic and intellectual life.Skip to next paragraph
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``Evening Bell'' is a cautionary tale about the collapse of values in wartime. Set in 1945, it focuses on an eight-man Red Army squad that finds 33 Japanese soldiers hiding in a cave - and refusing to surrender, even though the war is officially over and they're on the brink of starvation. The film has generated much discussion over matters ranging from its cinematography, by the brilliant Hou Yong, to its use of wartime atrocities as a metaphor for human conflicts in general.
Discussing his career with me at the Berlin festival, Wu said ``Evening Bell'' grew out of his own background and experience. ``I have never been involved in a war situation,'' he said through an interpreter. ``But from the days of my youth, I went through many political struggles [including] the Cultural Revolution,'' which had devastating effects on his country.
In his films, Wu has employed war as a symbol of this emotional turmoil. ``The very tricky relationships between people have [always] reminded me of a war situation,'' he says.
Wu touched on war for the first time in ``Gezi Shu,'' his second movie, made in 1984. ``It's a narrative film,'' he says, ``set during the Sino-Japanese war in the 1940s. It focuses on the disunity of the Chinese people: When the enemy was coming in the front door, they were still quarreling among themselves.'' His next film, ``Dove Tree,'' was also about war, and was banned from distribution by the Chinese authorities. The reason, according to Wu, is that it touches on the ``very sensitive'' issue of Sino-Vietnam conflict.
``When I was making the film,'' he explains, ``there were border conflicts between China and Vietnam, and I shot the film not very far from the border where [that] was taking place.'' Still, he adds, ``the film itself doesn't have a direct relation to the war. The interest and focus is beyond any war film - it's more concerned with humanity.'' The film is also experimental in its style, Wu notes. ``It has almost no dialogue, although it does have sound effects.''
Not every Wu film has been rooted in war. The feature he made just before ``Evening Bell'' deals instead with ``the 30 years of recent Chinese history, and how politics damage human relations.''
Wu has been affected by recent developments in China, including the censorship policies of the government. Since the banning of ``Dove Tree'' four years ago, he says, ``I have suffered quite a bit creatively. I feel like there's breath in my mouth that has not [been allowed to] come out, and yet I don't think I've done anything wrong.''