Prenatal attack on women. Primal and ultimate discrimination against daughters: Amniocentesis is a uterine test that can be used to determine the sex of an unborn child; misused in India, it has led to the aborting of female fetuses in a society that values males more than females. SEX-SELECTIVE ABORTIONS.
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Studies have also shown that girls and women tend to be neglected in receiving hospital treatment. One study in south India showed that the money spent in treating 19 firstborn girls was 38 percent of the money spent on treating 18 firstborn boys. For girls born down the line, there was a virtual absence of medical treatment.Skip to next paragraph
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This discrimination clearly shows up in the statistics.
India is one of few countries in the world (some others being Pakistan and Iran) that show an adverse female-to-male ratio in the population. The 1981 census showed the ratio to be 1,000 males per 935 females. The proportional representation of women has been declining since 1901.
``It is in this context that the protests against this selective abortion of female fetuses has taken on added urgency,'' says Sonal Shukla, a women's rights activist in Bombay. ``It is very dangerous, because if a girl or woman is ill treated or neglected in a family - resulting in their malnutrition, ill health, or even death - it is at least seen and known in the neighborhood.
``But what about amniocentesis and selective female infanticide?
``When a woman is just four months pregnant, she is taken to a doctor for a quick amniocentesis. This is followed by a quick abortion, if `needed.' No one need know. So there is no criticism - nor can any action be taken against a crime. Womb-to-womb oppression becomes, tragically enough, literally true.''
Ms. Patel says that women themselves are so mired in the existing value system that they often acquiesce in the practice. Besides, the women have few options to withstand the enormous social pressure brought on them to have sons.
``The problem is that most women know what it means to be an unwanted daughter,'' Patel says. ``Most hardly have any knowledge about the harm the tests can do to their bodies, especially in late pregnancy - to say nothing about the degradation of themselves and their sex by such practices. It is really a social adaptation to a difficult situation rather than a matter of choice by the women themselves.''
Women's civil rights groups are now demanding that the government ban the use of amniocentesis for prenatal sex determination and launch a campaign to publicize the fact that the sex of a child is determined by the father and not the mother.
They have also protested against treating this as a population control measure, as was suggested in some quarters. While the government has condemned the practice, it has done little to close clinics.
A middle-aged doctor in Bombay, who performed the tests in the past and has asked not to be identified, says she has stopped the practice now.
``A few years ago when this debate started in the press, I started thinking about the issue and finally realized that it was wrong to do sex-selective abortions. The practice cannot be defended in any way,'' she says.
``These tests and abortions should be banned legally, medically, and morally. Most doctors don't think seriously about the moral and ethical aspects of the issue - and in the process strengthen the ideas of discrimination in the society.''