S. Africa's education for blacks: a bleak landscape
Annesburg, South Africa
``Today, I will give you a test,'' the math teacher announced to her Soweto high school seniors. The pupils shouted, ``No,'' but she stood her ground. ``Oh, yes!'' she assured them.Skip to next paragraph
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One of the students rose, strode to the blackboard. Brandishing a knife, he drew nearly nose to nose with the teacher, and declared: ``There will be no test.''
There was no test.
Many of South Africa's nearly 20,000 segregated black public schools still seem to be functioning, notably primary schools and rural ``farm schools.'' But many of the urban black schools have become completely inoperative.
Meanwhile, at least some South Africans, including some in the government, are groping for a way to head off what black-education specialist Franz Auerbach of Soweto's privately funded Funda Education Center terms ``a future agony of thousands of untrained people ill prepared for any future.''
The landscape in most black city high schools -- seeding ground for the militants who have come to dominate black South African politics -- remains one of despair, semi-literacy, physical dilapidation, and violence. This is especially true in the eastern Cape province, and in Soweto, the largest of the black-commuter ``townships,'' on the edge of the country's main cities. The government, which administers the 7,000 black public schools outside the tribal ``homelands,'' has indicated that roughly two-thirds of its high schools were disrupted by political unrest in the 1985 academic year.
This crisis has accumulated over decades. It owes much, directly or indirectly, to the apartheid system of enforced racial segregation.
``Native [black] education should be controlled in such a way that it should be in accord with the policy of the state,'' declared Hendrik Verwoerd, the grand ideologist of apartheid, when he inaugurated his Bantu (black) Education system in 1953. ``If the native in South Africa today in any kind of school in existence is being taught to expect that he will live his adult life under a policy of equal rights, he is making a big mistake.''
Also contributing to the present crisis is a history of black poverty and illiteracy that predated apartheid, and an explosion of black population and economic and political aspirations that will outlive it. The number of blacks in government high schools has risen from roughly 35,000 in the mid-1950s, to something on the order of 750,000.
The aborted attempt to administer a math exam occurred not in one of the black city's public schools, but at a showcase private school founded and funded with the help of United States businesses here.
In Soweto's government-run high schools, the picture is made bleaker by the frequent shortage of qualified teachers, textbooks, and classroom equipment. According to a private study conducted in 1985 -- as the government was pumping millions of dollars into black education to reverse years of neglect -- only 2.4 percent of the teachers in black public schools had university diplomas.
Even before a recently renewed boycott brought most Soweto classes to a standstill, few students bothered doing homework. Teachers sometimes came to class drunk. They sometimes beat and sexually harrassed students. At year's end, the school dutifully ``promoted'' the unrealistically high number of students deemed to have passed internally administered exams, only to watch them crash to failure when it came time to take the government matriculation exam.
In one such school, recalls a teacher who recently left public education, only 10 of 24 classrooms had electricity. There were almost no blackboard erasers.