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By Phyllis HanesMountain View, Ark. / November 20, 1985

Here no songs are sung except those written before 1920 -- nor is any food prepared or served except in the way it was done in the period of 1820 to 1920. That's the bottom line at the Ozark Folk Center, where the heritage of that hill-country culture is recreated in music, crafts, leather working, quilting, dance, humor, and other facets of life as it was years ago.

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What was once a depressed area has been revitalized and a fast-fading way of life has been preserved in this rugged Ozark terrain, 150 miles north of Little Rock. Owned by the town of Mountain View, the Ozark Folk Center is operated as an Arkansas State Park. All the center's buildings, numbering nearly 50, are made from native stone and cedar. And they're scattered over an 80-acre area amid woods spiked with red haw, wild plum, locust, service berry, and huckleberry.

Against this forest backdrop, townspeople from Mountain View and neighboring communities share their crafts and music with visitors. It's a place where laughs are tossed about freely as craftspeople spin tales, turn out tunes on their dulcimers, and tell visiting families how to make brooms, keep bees, split shingles, and create cornhusk dolls.

At the fairs and exhibits no commercial displays are permitted, and no products made from kits or synthetics appear. The handcrafts of centuries gone by still have an appeal for Ozark artisans -- and for today's city folk who come to the area to browse and buy.

Situated as they are in a little isolated pocket of beautiful hill country, the people here are still involved with nature and the land. Many are descendants of the Irish and Scottish settlers who got no farther than the Ozarks on their move west when the nation was settled.

They are the last of the mountain folk who know the stories of their past, the secrets of their crafts, and the cooking ``receipts'' handed down from great-grandmothers before them, and the lively old songs.

The early settlers in the Ozarks considered banjos and fiddles almost as important as seeds, spinning wheels, and plowshares. No matter what the occasion -- a good harvest, a wedding, or a quiet winter evening by a crackling fire, agile Ozarkers picked, twanged, and sawed off tunes on their instruments.

People here have stayed close to the simple ways of living and many remember the days when there was no refrigeration and no electricity; when cooking was maneuvered over the fickle heat of the fireplace or wood-burning stove.

From the center's kitchen comes the aroma of baking biscuits and corn bread, the sweet, spicy fragrance of cinnamon, clove, apples, and peaches.

These scents mingle with those from garden patches of lavender and rosemary, pumpkin and persimmon, bordering an old-fashioned kitchen where cordwood is stacked outside the door.

Two ladies in long dresses ladle hot fruit preserves into jelly jars. ``I can't remember a time when we didn't have hot biscuits for breakfast at home,'' says Julia Case, as she shoves another stick of wood into the cast-iron cookstove.

She and Arline Grisette cook daily with old-fashioned utensils, using pots and pans, grinders and choppers, and other tools dating back to the 1820s. For them, this kind of cooking poses no problem. They do it easily and naturally.

``It's not so hard cooking on a wood stove once you get the hang of it,'' Mrs. Case says. `` 'Course you have to turn your biscuits so they won't come out burned to a crisp on one side and pale white on the other. You have to watch your oven and remember every time you open the door you're losing heat.''

When it comes to cooking something large like a turkey or chicken, ``years ago we didn't bake it the way you do today,'' she explains. ``We stew our turkeys first until the meat is tender, then we add the dressing and put it in the oven to brown.''