Geneva Summit. Key nuclear arms control treaties signed by US and USSR

Antarctic Treaty of 1961 (multilateral) Bans nuclear explosions and disposal of nuclear waste on the continent, among other provisions. Term: indefinite. Hot Line agreement of 1963 (bilateral) Set up emergency hot line between Washington and Moscow. Term: indefinite. In 1971, satellite links added. In 1984, system upgraded with facsimile links to transmit maps and charts. Term: indefinite. Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963 (multilateral) Bans nuclear explosions in the atmosphere, under water, in space, or in any other environment if the explosion would result in radioactive debris outside the testing nation's borders. Term: indefinite. Outer Space Treaty of 1967 (multilateral) Bans placing weapons of mass destruction -- including nuclear weapons -- in orbit, on the moon, or on other celestial bodies. Prohibits use of moon or other celestial bodies from being used for weapons testing, military installations, bases, or fortifications, or for conducting military maneuvers. Term: indefinite. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty of 1970 (multilateral) In addition to trying to curb the spread of nuclear weapons, the treaty commits all signatories to negotiate an end to the nuclear arms race and, ultimately, to negotiate nuclear disarmament. Term: indefinite. Accidents Measures agreement of 1971 (bilateral) Both sides pledge to improve safeguards against accidental launch of nuclear weapons; immediately notify the other party in case of accidental, unauthorized, or unintentional detonation, or if unidentified objects appear on early warning systems; and give advanced notice of any missile launch beyond the national territory of the launching party and in the direction of the other party. Term: indefinite. Seabed Arms Control Treaty of 1972 (multilateral) Bans testing, storage, or deployment of nuclear weapons or their launchers on or under the seabed outside a nation's 12-mile territorial limit. Term: indefinite. SALT I Treaty of 1972 (bilateral) 1. Antiballistic Missile Protocol in essence bans nationwide deployment of ballistic-missile defenses. Limits each side to one ABM system of no more than 100 launchers and 100 interceptors around either the nation's capital or one ICBM launch area. Term: indefinite. 2. Interim agreement limiting strategic offensive weapons in essence froze strategic ballistic missile launchers, operational and under construction, at exisiting levels. Submarine-based launchers could be added, up to a certain limit, only if an equal number of older ICBM and SLBM launchers was dismantled. Term: five years. Prevention of Nuclear War agreement of 1973 (bilateral) Each country pledges to avoid nuclear war between themselves or with third parties. Commits the two nations to consult with each other if there is a danger of nuclear confrontation between them or any other country. Term: indefinite. Threshold Test Ban Treaty of 1974 (bilateral, unratified by US) Prohibits tests of nuclear weapons with yields greater than 150 kilotons (150,000 tons of TNT). Sets up goal of negotiating similar treaty governing peaceful use of nuclear explosions. Term: five years. SALT II of 1979 (bilateral, unratified by US) 1. Basic elements include equal overall limits on strategic nuclear delivery vehicles; equal overall limits on launchers with independently targeted reentry vehicles and heavy bombers with cruise missiles; ban on new land-based ICBM launchers; ban on heavy mobile ICBM, heavy SLBM, and heavy air-to-surface ballistic missile launchers; allows testing and deployment of one new type of light ICBM; puts ceilings on ICBM launch weight and throw weight; limits the number of warheads per missile and long-ran ge cruise missiles per heavy bomber; bans deployment of certain new types of strategic offensive weapons. Term: six years. 2. Protocol governing testing and deployment of long-range ground- and sea-launched cruise missiles, mobile ICBM launchers and missiles, and air-to-surface ballistic missiles. Term: three years. 3. Joint statement of principles to govern future talks. Though unratified in the US, both countries have pledged to abide by SALT II's terms. Source: US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

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