Membership-based Dutch broadcast groups The following are the eight major Dutch broadcasting groups. All broadcast on both radio and television. (Some organizations have only radio in the title, because they were named before TV existed.) Dates each organization began broadcasting and the size of the membership as of January 1, 1982, are given. A groups (more than 450,000 members) AVRO (Algemeene Vereniging 'Radio Omroep,' General Radio Broadcasting Association) Jan. 1, 1928. 809,847. Tries to be general in its program content. The chairman is a well-known member of the right-wing Liberal party, to which some 40 percent of AVRO's members belong. TROS (Televisie Radio Omroep Stichting, Television/Radio Broadcasting Foundation) Oct. 2, 1966. 763,177. Began, for a few months in 1964, as Radio/TV Noordzee, a pirate station. Emphasizes entertainment and strives to get the most popular American series. Is right-wing Liberal. Membership tends to be more from the working class than that of AVRO. KRO (Katholieke Radio Omroep, Catholic Radio Society) Nov. 24, 1925. 611,254. More liberal than the Netherland Roman Catholic Church at large, but not so liberal as to offend the bishops. Nearly 75 percent of its members belong to the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal), a center political party.Fewer than 10 percent of KRO members are non-Catholic, and almost half of its membership is over 50 years of age. NCRV (Nederlandse Christelijke Radio Vereniging, Dutch Christian Radio Association) Dec. 24, 1924. 527,654. Mainstream Protestant. Of its members, 77.7 percent belong to the CDA. Some 90 percent are in the Protestant Reformed tradition. VARA (Omroepvereniging Vara, Vara Broadcasting Corporation) Nov. 7, 1925. 527, 521. Entertainment programs tend to focus on social issues. Buys British series with Labor tendencies. 82.2 percent of its members belong to the liberal Labor Party, giving it the least political diversity of any group. B groups (more than 300,000 members) VOO (Veronica Omroep Organisatie, Veronica Broadcasting Organization) April 21, 1976. 330,000. A radio pirate in the early 1970s. Appeals to the young, especially via pop music. Its membership is the most politically diverse of any group, with most in the center-left. Has the most youthful membership of any group, with 82.5 percent of its members under 36. C groups (more than 150,000 members) EO (Evangelische Omroep, Evangelistic Broadcasting) April 1, 1970. 227,000. Formed by those who believed NCRV's programming to be too secular. Broadcasts entirely reflect the fundamentalist theology of EO's management. Membership is exclusively Protestant. 44.4 percent of its members belong to small right and ultra-right parties. VPRO (VPRO Omroepvereniging, VPRO Broadcasting Corporation) May 30, 1926. 195, 688. Strong emphasis on informational or educational programming with a politically progressive undertone. It has the most liberal membership of any Dutch broadcasting group (96.2 percent belong to small left parties or to the Labor party). Its membership is also youthful, with 70.3 percent below 35.
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