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Proud tribesmen shuttle between war and peace

By Edward GirardetSpecial correspondent of The Christian Science Monitor / November 20, 1980

Bajaur, northwest Pakistan

"We take turns in fighting. Some of us rest with our families, while others cross into Afghanistan to make jihad [holy war] against the Russians." Rahmad Jan is a former agricultural inspector from Kunar Province on the other side of the jagged, pine-stubbled mountains that separate Pakistan from Afghanistan.

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Wearing a secondhand tweed jacket, pajama trousers, and sandals, Jan sits amid an assembly of solemn, turbaned Afghan tribesmen in a spacious tent donated by the West German Red Cross. He gestures disparagingly in the direction of his ragaved and battle-torn homeland, beyond the cheerless refugee camp in this tribal frontier that is now his home.

"Over there," he says, "Russian planes destroyed everything with their bombs. Our homes. Our Fields. We came here to seek shelter with our women and children. We came with nothing. Just the clothes we are wearing. Now we must live like nomads."

While the men sit cross-legged on worn, spread-out carpets to discuss their plight, women in dark chadors bustle out of sight doing household chores. Countless fires and dried mud ovens smoke lazily outside the sprawling hillside tents under the piercing sun as women prepare the midday meal or bake nan, the flat Afghan bread.

Dark-haired girls clothed in oversized dresses hover a safe distance away, shyly observing the proceedings. A gaggle of curious boys, more adventurous, clog the entrance of the tent with expectant, dusty faces.

"We want our freedom," announces a middled-aged tribesman pensively stroking his graying whiskers. "The Russians must leave. If they want Afghanistan, they will have to kill us all. for us it is an honor to die in battle against the infidels."

As in other parts of the Northwest Frontier Province and Baluchistan, tens of thousands of Afghan tribesman have streamed into the Bajaur region since the Soviet invation of Afghanistan last Christmas.In the past six months the refugee population here has more than doubled -- to roughly 132,000.

Unlike earlier refugees who dribbled into Pakistan in the spring of 1978, when brutal repression under the communist Khalq (People's) regime of Nur Muhammad Taraki and Hafizullah Amin grew steadily worse, many of the recent arrivals have been unable to bring anything with them but the barest of personal possessions. Food, shelter, clothing, and medicine must be provided by the UNHCR, the League of Red Cross Societies, the Pakistani government, and various voluntary agencies.

Influxes have been particularly high in Bajaur because of the frequent heavy fighting in Kunar Province and Nuristan. According to reliable sources, numerous villages have been destroyed by the Soviet and Afghan government forces in an attempt to break the stubborn resistance of the mujahideen ("holy warriors").

Some reports suggest, however, that the destruction of Afghan villages is increasing rather than diminishing that resistance. As destitute families pour across the border into Pakistan, more and more angry tribesmen are leaving their women and children in the camps and returning to join the mujahideen bands inside Afghanistan.